Mood States Identified as Smoking Triggers
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Many smokers are more likely to light up during a moment of anger or a fit of anxiety. But men seem to be more likely to puff away to alleviate feelings of sadness, while women are inclined to break out their smokes when they a
Smoking is related to negative moods and energy level, more clearly in men, and has soothing effects on sadness in men and on anger in men and women, according to Dr. Ralph J. Delfino of the University of California, Irvine, and colleagues.
The researchers monitored the smoking habits, blood pressure and mood states of 25 women and 35 men aged 18 to 42 who reported smoking at least 10 cigarettes per day.
The otherwise healthy volunteers were instructed to record their mood in a diary before and after smoking over two separate 24-hour periods. The findings are published in the August issue of the journal Nicotine & Tobacco Research.
``Sadness was positively associated with smoking urge more clearly in men than women, whereas feelings of happiness were associated with smoking urge in women, but not men,'' Delfino and colleagues report.
Both men and women were nearly twice as likely to have an urge to smoke if they reported being anxious, the report indicates.
``Smoking cessation and preventive interventions may require new methods that teach anger and stress management as well as broader aspects of effective emotion regulation,'' Delfino's team concludes.
Smoking-related diseases claim an estimated 430,700 American lives each year, and cost the US approximately $97.2 billion annually in healthcare and lost productivity. Smoking is directly responsible for 87% of lung cancer cases and causes most cases of emphysema and chronic bronchitis, according to the American Lung Association.